Nei kutamba kweraundi uye kushivirira zvisiri izvo zvakafanana

Kune kumwe kuvhiringidzika kwakatenderedza hukama pakati pechakanaka chekutakura, kushivirira kwayo kwekugadzira uye nhanho yekubvumidzwa kwemukati kana 'kutamba' pakati pemigwagwa nemabhora. Pano, Wu Shizheng, maneja maneja wezve diki uye diki mabheyari nyanzvi JITO Bearings, inojekesa kuti nei iyi ngano ichiripo uye izvo mainjiniya avanofanira kutsvaga.

Munguva yeHondo Yenyika Yechipiri, mufekitori yezvigadzirwa muScotland, murume anozivikanwa zvishoma anonzi Stanley Parker akatanga pfungwa yechinzvimbo chechokwadi, kana zvatinoziva nhasi seGeometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T). Parker akacherekedza kuti kunyangwe hazvo zvimwe zvikamu zvinoshanda zviri kugadzirirwa ma torpedoes zvaive zvichirambwa mushure mekuwongorora, ivo vachiri kuendeswa kugadzirwa.

Paakatarisisa, akaona kuti yaive muyero wekushivirira waive nemhosva. Iyo yechinyakare XY kurongedza kushivirira kwakagadzira nzvimbo yekutsungirira, iyo yaisabvisa chikamu kunyangwe yaigara poindi munzvimbo yakakomberedzwa yedenderedzwa pakati pemakona emakona. Akaenderera mberi nekuburitsa zvaakawana pamusoro pekuti ungaziva sei chinzvimbo chechokwadi mubhuku rakanzi Dhirowa uye Madimikira.

* Yemukati clearance
Nhasi, kunzwisisa uku kunotibatsira kukudziridza mabheyari anoratidza imwe nhanho yekutamba kana kusununguka, zvimwe zvinonzi kubvumidzwa kwemukati kana, kunyanya, radial uye axial play. Radial play ndiyo clearance yakayerwa perpendicular kune inobereka axis uye axial play ndiyo clearance yakayerwa zvakafanana neiyo inobata axis.

Mutambo uyu wakagadzirirwa mukutakura kubva pakutanga kubvumidza kutakura kutsigira mitoro mumamiriro ezvinhu akasiyana siyana, tichifunga nezvezvinhu zvakaita sekuwedzera tembiricha uye kuti kuenzana kuri pakati pemaringi emukati nekunze kuchakanganisa hupenyu hweihwo.

Kunyanya, kubvumidzwa kunogona kukanganisa ruzha, kudengenyeka, kupisa kupisa, kutsauka, kugovera mutoro uye hupenyu hwekuneta. Yakakwirira redhiyo yekutamba inodiwa mune mamiriro apo mhete yemukati kana shaft inotarisirwa kuve inopisa uye kuwedzera panguva yekushandisa ichienzaniswa neiyo yekunze mhete kana dzimba. Mune ino mamiriro, mutambo mukutakura uchadzikira. Zvakare, kutamba kunowedzera kana iyo yekunze mhete ikakura kupfuura iyo yemukati mhete.

Yakakwira axial yekutamba inodiwa mune masisitimu uko kune kusanzwisisika pakati pesimbi nedzimba sezvo kusarongeka kunogona kukonzera kutakura nekamaburi kadiki kemukati kutadza nekukurumidza. Kubvisa kwakakura kunogona zvakare kubvumira kutakura kuti utsungirire nemitoro yakakwira zvishoma sezvo ichizarura kona yepamusoro yekubatana.

* Kukosheswa
Izvo zvakakosha kuti mainjiniya arove iwo iwo mwero wakaringana wekubvumidzwa kwemukati mukutakura. Kubata kwakanyanya uye kusakwana kwekutamba kunounza kupisa kwakanyanya uye kukakavara, izvo zvinokonzeresa kuti mabhora apinde mumugwagwa uye nekukurumidza kupfeka. Saizvozvo, kuregedza kwakanyanya kunowedzera ruzha uye kudedera uye kunoderedza kutenderera kwakaringana.

Kuchenesa kunogona kudzorwa nekushandisa zvakasiyana fits. Injiniya inokodzera inoreva kubvumidzwa pakati pezvikamu zviviri zvekusangana. Izvi zvinowanzo rondedzerwa se shaft iri mugomba uye inomiririra mwero wekusimba kana kusununguka pakati pesimbi neringi remukati uye pakati peiri mhete yekunze nedzimba. Inowanzozviratidza mune yakasununguka, clearance fit kana yakasimba, yekukanganisa kukwana.

Kubatana kwakasimba pakati pemhete yomukati uye shaft kwakakosha kuichengeta iri munzvimbo uye kudzivirira kukambaira kusingadiwe kana kutsvedza, uko kunogona kuunza kupisa uye kudengenyeka uye kukonzera kudzikisira.

Nekudaro, kupindirana kwakakodzera kunodzora kubvumidzwa mubhora rinotakura sezvo ichiwedzera mhete yemukati. Iyo yakafanana yakasimba yakasimba pakati pedzimba neiri yekunze mhete mukutakura ine yakaderera radial play ichadzvanya iyo yekunze mhete uye inoderedza clearance kunyangwe ichienderera. Izvi zvinokonzeresa kusabvumirwa kwemukati kwakashata - zvinobudirira kupa shaft yakakura kupfuura gomba - uye zvinotungamira mukukwesana kwakanyanya uye kukundikana kwekutanga.

Chinangwa ndechekuti zero zero ishandiswe yekutamba kana iko kuita kuri kumhanya pasi peyakajairika mamiriro. Nekudaro, iyo yekutanga radial play iyo inodiwa kuti uwane izvi inogona kukonzera matambudziko nemabhora kutsvedza kana kutsvedza, kudzikamisa kuomarara uye kutenderera kunyatso. Iyi yekutanga radial play inogona kubviswa uchishandisa preloading. Kugadzirisazve inzira yekuisa zvachose axial mutoro pachibereko, kana yagadziriswa, nekushandisa ma washer kana matsime akakomberedzwa nemhete yemukati kana yekunze.

Mainjiniya anofanirwa zvakare kufunga nezvenyaya yekuti zviri nyore kudzikisa kubvumidzwa mune yakatetepa-chikamu chinotakura nekuti mhete dzakatetepa uye nyore kuumbika. Semugadziri wemabheya madiki uye madiki, JITO Bearings inokurudzira vatengi vayo kuti humwe hutarisiro hunofanirwa kutorwa ne shaft-to-housing fits. Shaft uye kutenderera kweimba zvakare kwakakosha zvakanyanya neakaonda mhando mabheyari nekuti yekunze-kwe-kutenderera shaft inokanganisa mhete dzakaonda uye kuwedzera ruzha, kudengenyeka uye torque.

* Kushivirira
Kusanzwisisana nezve basa redhiyo uye axial kutamba kwakatungamira vazhinji kuvhiringidza hukama uripo pakati pekutamba uye kunyatsoita, kunyanya iko kukonzeresa kunobva mukutsungirira kwekugadzira kuri nani.

Vamwe vanhu vanofunga kuti yakatwasuka yakanyatsoita haifanirwe kunge isina yekutamba uye kuti inofanirwa kutenderera chaizvo. Kwavari, yakasununguka radial play inonzwa kushoma chaizvo uye inopa pfungwa yeakaderera mhando, kunyangwe ingave iri yepamusoro-chaiyo inotakura nemaune yakagadzirirwa neakasununguka kutamba. Semuenzaniso, takabvunza vamwe vedu vatengi munguva yakapfuura kuti sei vachida yepamusoro-chaiyo inotakura uye ivo vakatiudza ivo kuti vanoda, "kudzikisa mutambo".

Nekudaro, ichokwadi kuti shiviriro inovandudza kunyatso. Isiri nguva refu mushure mekuuya kwekugadzirwa kwakawanda, mainjiniya akaona kuti hazvibatsiri kana nehupfumi, kana zvichikwanisika zvachose, kugadzira zvigadzirwa zviviri zvakada kufanana. Kunyangwe kana zvese zvinogadzirwa zvichichengetwa zvakafanana, pachagara paine misiyano yeminiti pakati peyuniti neinotevera.

Nhasi, izvi zvasvika pakumirira kubvumidzwa kana kutenderwa kushivirira. Makoreti ekutsungirira ebhora mabheyaringi, anozivikanwa seIO (metric) kana ABEC (inch) ratings, gadzirisa kutenderuka kutenderwa uye zviyero zvekuvhara zvinosanganisira zvemukati nekunze saizi yeringi uye kutenderera kwemaringi uye nzira dzenzira. Iyo yakakwira iyo kirasi uye iyo yakasimba iyo shiviriro, iyo inonyanya kunyatsoita iyo inobata ichave kana ichinge yaungana.

Nekurova iro rakaringana muyero pakati pekusunga uye radial uye axial kutamba panguva yekushandisa, mainjiniya anogona kuwana yakanakira zero yekushanda clearance uye nekuona yakaderera ruzha nekutenderera kwakaringana. Mukuita kudaro, isu tinokwanisa kujekesa nyonganiso pakati pekujeka uye kutamba uye, nenzira imwecheteyo iyo Stanley Parker akachinja kuyerwa kwemaindasitiri, achinyatso shandura nzira yatinotarisa kumabheringi.


Post nguva: Mar-04-2021